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Eastern fox Snakes

By Richard Bartlett
Wed, January 17 2018 at 09:14

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ambermr1 - #1 - 2018-01-17 19:14 - (Reply)

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Jameslef - #2 - 2018-01-17 21:53 - (Reply)

A boiler is a closed vessel where water or other liquid is heated. The fluid does not boil. (In THE UNITED STATES, the word "furnace" is generally used if the purpose is not to boil the liquid.) The warmed or vaporized fluid exits the boiler for use in a variety of heating system or processes applications,[1][2] including drinking water heating, central heating, boiler-based power era, cooking food, and sanitation.

Materials
The pressure vessel of a boiler is usually made of steel (or alloy steel), or historically of wrought iron. Stainless steel, of the austenitic types especially, is not found in wetted elements of boilers due to corrosion and stress corrosion cracking.[3] However, ferritic stainless steel is often found in superheater sections that will not be exposed to boiling water, and electrically heated stainless steel shell boilers are allowed under the European "Pressure Equipment Directive" for creation of steam for sterilizers and disinfectors.[4]
[url=https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler[/url]
In live steam models, copper or brass is often used because it is easier fabricated in smaller size boilers. Historically, copper was often used for fireboxes (particularly for vapor locomotives), because of its better formability and higher thermal conductivity; however, in newer times, the high price of copper often makes this an uneconomic choice and cheaper substitutes (such as metal) are used instead.

For a lot of the Victorian "age of steam", the only materials used for boilermaking was the best quality of wrought iron, with assembly by rivetting. This iron was often from specialist ironworks, such as at Cleator Moor (UK), observed for the high quality of their rolled plate and its own suitability for high-reliability use in critical applications, such as high-pressure boilers. In the 20th century, design practice instead relocated towards the utilization of steel, which is more powerful and cheaper, with welded building, which is quicker and requires less labour. It should be noted, however, that wrought iron boilers corrode far slower than their modern-day metal counterparts, and are less vunerable to localized pitting and stress-corrosion. This makes the longevity of older wrought-iron boilers far superior to those of welded metal boilers.

Cast iron may be used for the heating system vessel of home water heaters. Although such heaters are usually termed "boilers" in some countries, their purpose is usually to produce warm water, not steam, and they also run at low pressure and try to avoid boiling. The brittleness of cast iron makes it impractical for high-pressure steam boilers.
Boiler Repairs Winchmore Hill, N21, Boiler Breakdown Emergency Service [url=http://boiler-repairs-winchmore-hill.co.uk]Show more...[/url]
Energy
The foundation of heating for a boiler is combustion of some of several fuels, such as wood, coal, oil, or gas. Electric steam boilers use level of resistance- or immersion-type heating elements. Nuclear fission is used as a heat source for generating steam also, either directly (BWR) or, generally, in specialised heat exchangers called "vapor generators" (PWR). Warmth recovery vapor generators (HRSGs) use heat rejected from other processes such as gas turbine.

Boiler efficiency
there are two solutions to gauge the boiler efficiency 1) direct method 2) indirect method

Direct method -immediate method of boiler efficiency test is more functional or more common

boiler efficiency =Q*((Hg-Hf)/q)*(GCV *100 ) Q =Total steam movement Hg= Enthalpy of saturated steam in k cal/kg Hf =Enthalpy of feed water in kcal/kg q= quantity of fuel use in kg/hr GCV =gross calorific value in kcal/kg like family pet coke (8200 kcal/KG)

indirect method -to measure the boiler efficiency in indirect method, we need a subsequent parameter like

Ultimate analysis of gas (H2,S2,S,C moisture constraint, ash constraint)
percentage of O2 or CO2 at flue gas
flue gas temperature at outlet
ambient temperature in deg c and humidity of air in kg/kg
GCV of gasoline in kcal/kg
ash percentage in combustible fuel
GCV of ash in kcal/kg
Configurations
Boilers can be classified in to the following configurations:

Container boiler or Haycock boiler/Haystack boiler: a primitive "kettle" in which a open fire heats a partially filled water pot from below. 18th century Haycock boilers generally produced and stored large quantities of very low-pressure steam, often hardly above that of the atmosphere. These could burn wood or most often, coal. Efficiency was very low.
Flued boiler with one or two large flues-an early forerunner or type of fire-tube boiler.

Diagram of a fire-tube boiler
Fire-tube boiler: Here, drinking water partially fills a boiler barrel with a little volume still left above to support the vapor (vapor space). This is the type of boiler used in all steam locomotives nearly. Heat source is inside a furnace or firebox that has to be held permanently surrounded by water in order to keep up the temperatures of the heating system surface below the boiling point. The furnace can be situated at one end of a fire-tube which lengthens the road of the hot gases, thus augmenting the heating surface which can be further increased by making the gases invert direction through a second parallel tube or a bundle of multiple pipes (two-pass or return flue boiler); on the other hand the gases may be taken along the sides and then under the boiler through flues (3-move boiler). In case of a locomotive-type boiler, a boiler barrel expands from the firebox and the hot gases pass through a bundle of fire pipes inside the barrel which greatly escalates the heating system surface in comparison to a single pipe and further boosts heat transfer. Fire-tube boilers will often have a comparatively low rate of vapor creation, but high vapor storage capacity. Fire-tube boilers burn off solid fuels mostly, but are readily adaptable to those of the gas or water variety.

Diagram of the water-tube boiler.
Water-tube boiler: In this kind, tubes filled up with drinking water are arranged in the furnace in several possible configurations. The water tubes connect large drums Often, the lower ones made up of drinking water and top of the ones vapor and drinking water; in other cases, like a mono-tube boiler, water is circulated by a pump through a succession of coils. This type generally gives high steam creation rates, but less storage space capacity than the above. Water tube boilers can be designed to exploit any warmth source and are generally preferred in high-pressure applications because the high-pressure drinking water/steam is included within small size pipes which can withstand the pressure with a thinner wall.
Flash boiler: A flash boiler is a specialized kind of water-tube boiler where tubes are close together and water is pumped through them. A flash boiler differs from the type of mono-tube steam generator in which the tube is permanently filled with water. Super fast boiler, the pipe is kept so hot that the water feed is quickly flashed into vapor and superheated. Flash boilers acquired some use in automobiles in the 19th century and this use continued in to the early 20th century. .

1950s design steam locomotive boiler, from a Victorian Railways J class
Fire-tube boiler with Water-tube firebox. Sometimes the two above types have been mixed in the next manner: the firebox consists of an set up of water tubes, called thermic siphons. The gases then go through a conventional firetube boiler. Water-tube fireboxes were installed in many Hungarian locomotives,[citation needed] but have met with little success in other countries.
Sectional boiler. Within a solid iron sectional boiler, sometimes called a "pork chop boiler" the water is contained inside ensemble iron sections.[citation needed] These sections are assembled on site to make the finished boiler.
Safety
See also: Boiler explosion
To define and secure boilers safely, some professional specialized organizations such as the American Culture of Mechanical Technical engineers (ASME) develop criteria and regulation rules. For instance, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is a typical providing an array of rules and directives to ensure compliance of the boilers and other pressure vessels with protection, design and security standards.[5]

Historically, boilers were a way to obtain many serious injuries and property destruction due to badly understood engineering principles. Thin and brittle steel shells can rupture, while welded or riveted seams could start badly, leading to a violent eruption of the pressurized steam. When water is converted to vapor it expands to over 1,000 times its original travels and volume down steam pipes at over 100 kilometres each hour. Because of this, vapor is a superb way of moving energy and high temperature around a site from a central boiler house to where it is needed, but without the right boiler feed water treatment, a steam-raising place will suffer from level corrosion and formation. At best, this boosts energy costs and can result in poor quality vapor, reduced efficiency, shorter vegetation and unreliable procedure. At worst, it can lead to catastrophic loss and failing of life. Collapsed or dislodged boiler pipes can also spray scalding-hot steam and smoke from the air intake and firing chute, injuring the firemen who fill the coal in to the fire chamber. Extremely large boilers providing hundreds of horsepower to use factories can potentially demolish entire buildings.[6]

A boiler that has a loss of feed water and is permitted to boil dry out can be extremely dangerous. If feed drinking water is sent into the unfilled boiler then, the tiny cascade of incoming water instantly boils on connection with the superheated metal shell and leads to a violent explosion that cannot be managed even by safety vapor valves. Draining of the boiler can also happen if a leak occurs in the vapor supply lines that is bigger than the make-up drinking water supply could replace. The Hartford Loop was developed in 1919 by the Hartford Vapor Boiler and Insurance Company as a strategy to help prevent this condition from occurring, and thereby reduce their insurance promises.[7][8]

Superheated steam boiler

A superheated boiler on the steam locomotive.
Main article: Superheater
Most boilers produce vapor to be used at saturation temperatures; that is, saturated vapor. Superheated steam boilers vaporize the water and further heating the steam in a superheater then. This provides steam at higher temperatures, but can decrease the overall thermal efficiency of the steam generating herb because the higher vapor heat takes a higher flue gas exhaust heat range.[citation needed] There are several ways to circumvent this issue, by providing an economizer that heats the feed drinking water typically, a combustion air heating unit in the hot flue gas exhaust route, or both. You can find benefits to superheated steam that may, and often will, increase overall efficiency of both steam generation and its utilization: gains in input temp to a turbine should outweigh any cost in additional boiler problem and expense. There could be useful restrictions in using wet vapor also, as entrained condensation droplets will harm turbine blades.

Superheated steam presents unique safety concerns because, if any system component fails and allows steam to escape, the high pressure and temperature can cause serious, instantaneous harm to anyone in its path. Since the escaping steam will be completely superheated vapor, detection can be difficult, although the intense heat and sound from such a leak clearly indicates its presence.

Superheater procedure is similar to that of the coils on an fresh air conditioning unit, although for a different purpose. The vapor piping is directed through the flue gas route in the boiler furnace. The temperature in this area is typically between 1,300 and 1,600 °C (2,372 and 2,912 °F). Some superheaters are radiant type; that is, they absorb temperature by radiation. Others are convection type, absorbing warmth from a liquid. Some are a combination of both types. Through either method, the extreme heat in the flue gas path will heat the superheater steam piping and the steam within also. While the heat range of the steam in the superheater rises, the pressure of the vapor will not and the pressure remains exactly like that of the boiler.[9] Almost all steam superheater system designs remove droplets entrained in the steam to prevent harm to the turbine blading and associated piping.

Supercritical steam generator

Boiler for a power plant.
Main article: Supercritical steam generator
Supercritical steam generators are generally used for the production of energy. They operate at supercritical pressure. As opposed to a "subcritical boiler", a supercritical steam generator operates at such a high pressure (over 3,200 psi or 22 MPa) that the physical turbulence that characterizes boiling ceases that occurs; the liquid is neither water nor gas but a super-critical liquid. There is absolutely no generation of steam bubbles within the water, because the pressure is above the critical pressure point of which steam bubbles can form. As the fluid expands through the turbine levels, its thermodynamic state drops below the critical point as it does work turning the turbine which changes the electrical generator from which power is ultimately extracted. The fluid at that point may be considered a mix of vapor and liquid droplets as it goes by in to the condenser. This results in less fuel use and for that reason less greenhouse gas production slightly. The term "boiler" should not be used for a supercritical pressure steam generator, as no "boiling" occurs in this product.
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Accessories
Boiler accessories and fittings
Pressuretrols to regulate the vapor pressure in the boiler. Boilers generally have two or three 3 pressuretrols: a manual-reset pressuretrol, which functions as a safety by setting the top limit of vapor pressure, the working pressuretrol, which handles when the boiler fires to keep pressure, as well as for boilers equipped with a modulating burner, a modulating pressuretrol which handles the quantity of fire.
Security valve: It is utilized to relieve pressure and stop possible explosion of the boiler.
Water level indicators: They show the operator the amount of fluid in the boiler, also called a view cup, water gauge or drinking water column.
Bottom blowdown valves: They provide a way for removing solid particulates that condense and lie on the bottom of a boiler. As the name suggests, this valve is usually located on the bottom of the boiler, and is occasionally opened up to use the pressure in the boiler to push these particulates out.
Continuous blowdown valve: This allows a small quantity of water to escape continuously. Its purpose is to avoid water in the boiler becoming saturated with dissolved salts. Saturation would lead to foaming and cause drinking water droplets to be transported over with the steam - a disorder known as priming. Blowdown is also often used to monitor the chemistry of the boiler water.
Trycock: a type of valve that is often use to manually check a water level in a tank. Most found on a drinking water boiler commonly.
Flash container: High-pressure blowdown enters this vessel where in fact the vapor can 'flash' safely and become found in a low-pressure system or be vented to atmosphere as the ambient pressure blowdown moves to drain.
Automatic blowdown/continuous heat recovery system: This system allows the boiler to blowdown only once make-up water is moving to the boiler, thereby transferring the utmost amount of heat possible from the blowdown to the makeup water. No flash container is normally needed as the blowdown discharged is close to the heat range of the make-up water.
Hand openings: They are steel plates installed in openings in "header" to allow for inspections & installing tubes and inspection of internal surfaces.
Steam drum internals, a series of screen, scrubber & cans (cyclone separators).
Low-water cutoff: It is a mechanical means (usually a float change) that can be used to turn off the burner or shut off gasoline to the boiler to avoid it from running once the water runs below a certain point. If a boiler is "dry-fired" (burnt without water in it) it can cause rupture or catastrophic failure.
Surface blowdown collection: It offers a means for removing foam or other light-weight non-condensible substances that tend to float together with the water inside the boiler.
Circulating pump: It is designed to circulate drinking water back again to the boiler after they have expelled some of its heat.
Feedwater check valve or clack valve: A non-return stop valve in the feedwater line. This may be fitted to the side of the boiler, below the water level just, or to the very best of the boiler.[10]
Top give food to: In this design for feedwater injection, water is fed to the top of the boiler. This can reduce boiler exhaustion caused by thermal stress. By spraying the feedwater over a series of trays the water is quickly warmed and this can reduce limescale.
Desuperheater pipes or bundles: A series of pipes or bundles of pipes in water drum or the vapor drum made to cool superheated steam, in order to supply auxiliary equipment that does not need, or may be damaged by, dry vapor.
Chemical substance injection line: A link with add chemicals for controlling feedwater pH.
Steam accessories
Main steam stop valve:
Steam traps:
Main steam stop/check valve: It is utilized on multiple boiler installations.
Combustion accessories
Gasoline oil system:gas oil heaters
Gas system:
Coal system:
Soot blower
Other essential items
Pressure gauges:
Feed pumps:
Fusible plug:
Inspectors test pressure gauge attachment:
Name dish:
Registration dish:

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