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Venoms and toxins

    General Articles

    Toxin Evolution

    Structure and Function

    Genomics & Proteomics

    Bioprospecting and Toxin Applications



Influences on venom yield in Australian tigersnakes (Notechis scutatus) and brownsnakes (Pseudonaja textilis:Elapidae, Serpentes). (2002) MIRTSCHIN PJ, SHINE R, NIAS TJ, DUNSTAN NL, HOUGH BJ, MIRTSCHIN M. Toxicon 40:15811592. Elsevier Science 

The effect of an electrical current on snake venom toxicity. (1992) DAVIS D, BRANCH K, EGEN NB, RUSSELL FE, GERRISH K, AUERBACH PS. Journal of Wilderness Medicine. 3:48-53. Chapman & Hall.

Intravenous dose-lethality study of American pit viper venoms in mice using standardized methods. (1992) CONSROE P, GERRISH K, EGEN N, RUSSELL FE. Journal of Wilderness Medicine. 3:162-167. Chapman & Hall.

Vipers venom, and life-saving snakes. (2001) GOTTLIEB SH. Diabetes Forecast (November) pp48-50.


Molecular evolution and phylogeny of elapid snake venom three-finger toxins. (2003) FRY BG, WUSTER W, KINI RM, BRUSIC V, KHAN A, VENKATARAMAN D, ROONEY AP. J Mol Evol (2003) 57:110129 Springer-Verlag.

Elapid venom toxins: multiple recruitments of ancient scaffolds (1999) ALAPE-GIRON A, PERSSON B, CEDERLUND E, FLORES-DIAZ M, GUTIERREZ JM, THELESTAM M, BERGMAN T, JORNVALL H. European J. Biochem. 259, 225-234 (1999) FEBS 

Mechanisms for Evolving Hypervariability: The Case of Conopeptides (2002) CONTICELLO SG, GILAD Y, AVIDAN N, BEN-ASHER E, LEVY Z, FAINZILBER M. Mol. Biol. Evol. 18(2):120131. The Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

Modulation of phospholipase A2 activity generated by molecular evolution (1999) BETZEL C, GENOV N, RAJASHANKAR KR, SINGH TP. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 56 (1999) 384397. Birkhauser Verlag, Basel.

Is rattlesnake venom evolving? (2000) GRENARD S Natural History Vol.109(6) p44-6 American Museum of Natural History.



Structure and characterization of the glycan moiety of L-amino-acid oxidase from the Malayan pit viper Calloselasma rhodostoma (2001) GEYER A, FITZPATRICK TB, PAWELEK PD, KITZING K, VRIELINK A, GHISLA S, MACHEROUX P. European J. Biochem. 268:4044-4053 FEBS

High resolution X-ray analysis of two mutants of a curaremimetic snake toxin. (2000) GAUCHER JF, MENEZ R, ARNOUX J, PUSSET J, DUCRUIX A. European J. Biochem. 267, 1323-1329 (2000) FEBS 

Cobra venom cytotoxin free of phospholipase A2 and its effect on model membranes and T leukemia cells. (1997) GASANOV SE, ALSARRAJ MA, GASANOV NE, RAEL ED. J. Membrane Biol. 155, 133142 Springer-Verlag.

Interaction of the neurotoxic and nontoxic secretory phospholipases A2 with the crotoxin inhibitor from Crotalus serum. (2000) FAURE G, VILLELA C, PERALES J, BON C. European J. Biochem. 267, 47994808 (2000) FEBS 2000

Calcium-binding analysis and molecular modeling reveal echis coagulation factor IX/factor X-binding protein has the Ca-binding properties and Ca ion-independent folding of other C-type lectin-like proteins. (2002) ATODA H, KANEKO H, MIZUNO H, MORITA T. FEBS Letters 531:229-234. FEBS

A Novel Small Conductance Ca2+-activated K+ Channel Blocker from Oxyuranus scutellatus Taipan Venom : Re-evaluation of taicatoxin as a selective Ca2+ channel probe (1997) DOORTY KA, BEVAN S, WADSWORTH JDF and STRONG PN The Journal of Biological Chemistry Vol.272(32) pp1992530. The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

Purification, Properties, and Amino Acid Sequence of a Hemoglobinuria-Inducing Phospholipase A2, MiPLA-1, from Micropechis ikaheka Venom. (1999) GAO R, KINI RM and GOPALAKRISHNAKONE P. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Vol.369(1), pp.181-192. Academic Press.

Phospholipase A2 with Platelet Aggregation Inhibitor Activity from Austrelaps superbus Venom: Protein Purification and cDNA Cloning (2000) SINGH SB, ARMUGAM A, KINI RM and JEYASELLAN K. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Vol.375(2), pp.289-303. Academic Press.

Analysis of Binding of Cobra Cardiotoxins to Heparin Reveals a New -Sheet Heparin-binding Structural Motif. (1997) VYAS AA, PAN J-J, PATEL HV, VYAS KA, CHIANG C-M, SHEU Y-C, HWANG J-K, WU W-G. J Biol. Chem. 272(15):96619670 The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Inc.

Solution Structure of Toxin b, a Long Neurotoxin from the Venom of the King Cobra (Ophiophagus hannah). (1997) PENG S-S, KUMAR TKS, JAYARAMAN G, CHANG C-C, YU C. J. Biol. Chem. 272(12):7817-7823. The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Inc.

Understanding the Structure, Function and Folding of Cobra Toxins. (1999) KUMAR TKS, PANDIAN STK, JAYARAMAN G, PENG H-J, YU C. Proc. Natl. Sci. Counc. ROC(A). 23(1):1-19 National Science Council ROC(A). 

Functional site of endogenous phospholipase A2 inhibitor from python serum: Phospholipase A2 binding and anti-inflammatory activity. (2002) THWIN M-M, SATISH RL, CHAN STF, GOPALAKRISHNAKONE P. Eur. J. Biochem. 269:719-727 FEBS.

Snake α-Neurotoxin Binding Site on the Egyptian Cobra (Naja haje) Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Is Conserved. (2001) TAKACS Z, WILHELMSEN KC, SOROTA S. Mol. Biol. Evol. 18(9):1800-1809. The Society for Molecular Biology & Evolution.

The structure of L-amino acid oxidase reveals the substrate trajectory into an enantiomerically conserved active site. (2000) PAWELEK PD, CHEAH J, COULOMBE R, MACHEROUX P, GHISLA S, VRIELINK A. EMBO Journal. 19(16):4204-4215. European Molecular Biology Organization.

Some pharmacological studies of venom from the inland taipan (Oxyuranus microlepidotus). (1998) BELL KL, SUTHERLAND SK, HODGSON WC. Toxicon 36(1):63-74. Elsevier Science Ltd.

The smooth muscle relaxant effects of venom from the inland taipan (Oxyuranus microlepidotus). (1999) BELL KL, KEMP BA, McPHERSON GA, HODGSON WC. Toxicon 37:229-231. Elsevier Science Ltd.



Conservation of stem-loop potential in introns of snake venom pholspholipase A2 genes: An application of FORS-D Analysis. (1995) FORSDYKE DR. Mol. Biol. Evol. 12(6):1157-1165. The University of Chicago.

A family of textilinin genes, two of which encode proteins with antihaemorrhagic properties. (2002) FILIPPOVICH I, SOROKINA N, MASCI PP, DE JERSEY J, WHITAKER AN, WINZOR DJ, GAFFNEY PJ, LAVIN MF. British Journal of Haematology. 119:376384. Blackwell Publishing Ltd

Postsynaptic short-chain neurotoxins from Pseudonaja textilis cDNA cloning, expression and protein characterization. (1999) GONG N, ARMUGAM A, JEYASEELAN K. European J. Biochem. 265:982-989 FEBS 

Control of venom production and secretion by sympathetic outflow in the snake Bothrops jararaca YAMANOUYE N, BRITTO LRG, CARNEIRO SM, and MARKUS RP. The Journal of Experimental Biology Vol.200, pp25472556 The Company of Biologists Limited 

Purification, Characterization, and Amino Acid Sequence Determination of Acanthins, Potent Inhibitors of Platelet Aggregation from Acanthophis antarcticus (Common Death Adder) Venom (1998) CHOW G, SUBBURAJU S and KINI M Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics Vol.354(2) pp232-38. Academic Press.



In search of venomous cures (2000) HARVEY AL. Chemistry and Industry March 6, 2000 pp176-8.

Hannahpep: A Novel Fibrinolytic Peptide from the Indian King Cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) Venom (1999) GOMES A and PALLABI DE. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.266(2) pp.488-491 Academic Press.

The Neurotoxicity of the Venom Phospholipases A2, Notexin and Taipoxin. (2000) HARRIS JB, GRUBB BD, MALTIN CA and DIXON R Experimental Neurology, Vol.161(2), pp.517-526. Academic Press.

Echistatin inhibits pp125FAK autophosphorylation, paxillin phosphorylation and pp125FAK-paxillin interaction in fibronectin-adherent melanoma cells. (2000) DELLA MORTE R, SQUILLACIOTI C, GARBI C, DERKINDEREN P, BELISARIO MA, GIRAULT JA, DI NATALE P, NITSCH L, STAIANO N. European. J. Biochem. 267:5047-5054 FEBS 

Ultrastructural alterations and growth inhibition of Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania major induced by Bothrops jararaca venom (2002) GONCLAVES AR, SOARES MJ, DE SOUZA W, DAMATTA RA, ALVES EW. Parasitol Res 88: 598602 Springer-Verlag


Except where stated otherwise all site content David Williams (1998-2003)