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Clinical toxinology and snakebite

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Recurrent and Persistent Coagulopathy Following Pit Viper Envenomation (1999) BOYER LV, SEIFERT SA, CLARK RF, McNALLY JT, WILLIAMS SR, NORDT SP, WALTER FG and DART RC Archives Internal Medicine Vol.159 pp706-10 1999 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.

Low dose subcutaneous adrenaline to prevent acute adverse reactions to antivenom serum in people bitten by snakes: randomised, placebo controlled trial (1999) PREMAWARDHENA AP, DE SILVA CE, FONSEKA MMD, GUNATILAKE SB DE SILVA HJ British Medical Journal Vol.318 pp1041-43.

Taking the bite out of snake venoms. (1999) SENIOR K The Lancet Vol.353(9168) p1946-7.

Bites by Russell's viper (Vipera russelli siamensis) in Burma: haemostatic, vascular, and renal disturbances and response to treatment. MYINT-LWIN, WARRELL DA, PHILLIPS RE, TIN-NU-SWE, TUN-PE, MAUNG-MAUNG-LAY  Lancet 1985 2:8467 1259-64



Venomous bites and stings in the tropical world. (1993) WARRELL DA.  Med J Aust. 159:773-79. The Medical Journal of Australia.


Neutralizing Human Anti Crotoxin scFv Isolated from a Nonimmunized Phage Library (2000) CARDOSO DF, NATO F, ENGLAND P, FERREIRA ML, VAUGHAN TJ, MOTA I, MAZIE JC, CHOUMET V, LAFAYE P. Scand. J. Immunol. 51:337-344. Blackwell Science Ltd.

EK N. Serum levels of the immunoglobulins IgG and IgG(T) in horses. Acta Vet Scand 1974 15:4 pp609-19

SJOSTROM L, AL-ABDULLA IH, RAWAT S, SMITH DC, LANDON J A comparison of ovine and equine antivenoms. Toxicon 1994 32:4 pp427-33.

SUTHERLAND SK & LOVERING KE Antivenoms: use and adverse reactions over a 12-month period in Australia and Papua New Guinea. Med J Aust 1979 2:13 pp671-4


Except where stated otherwise all site content David Williams (1998-2003)